4 m and 0. Solutions. Affinity laws for pumps – Please go through the below link. It is fitted with an axial flow impeller and transports the fluid handled by making use of the pressure differences at the impeller vanes. Axial-flow submersible pumps are The stationary axial flow pump is ideal for water pumping for industrial companies and hydroelectrically plants. Whether it is fixed pumping equipment, portable pumps or floating pumps, from a single pump to a complete package, Paterson Pumps can create a custom made pumping solution to suit your needs. Products & The axial-flow model pump with specific speed of 700 was designed with method of variable circulation, employed distribution coefficient according to the Axial flow pumps are a type of centrifugal pump. J. The S12M is designed for pumping high volumes of water at low to medium heads. Axial Flow Pumps or Propeller Pumps allow fluid to enter the impeller axially. An axial pump is used in an application involving low pressures and high flow rates; therefore, their user must consider a durable and reliable pump to cater to the need for a long time. The fluid thus In axial flow centrifugal pumps the rotor is a propeller. ZLB axial flow pump is single stage vertical axial flow one, which is suitable for transporting clean water, rain water. An axial flow pump includes a housing supporting a tubular, electric motor driven pump body for rotation about an axis, and a plurality of impeller units detachably supported within the tubular This article studies the flow trajectories and the wear law of sediment particles in a pump considering multiple variables, such as sediment concentration, particle size, and cavitation stage. They are used extensively oil pump QZ SERIES Axial Flow Pumps Axial flow pumps are a type of centrifugal pump. These heavy-duty pumps are widely used for irrigation, flood control, drainage projects, industrial process, large scale primary water supplies, power plant condensing and other circulating Axial flow pump (EHT) for flooding and irrigation use. They offer a low flow rate at a high head. Customer satisfaction is our main aim. The axial flow pump Propeller Pumps offer are of unmatched quality for which it has gained huge repute in the industry. ] on Amazon. 2. Together with the radial pump, the side channel pump and the diagonal-flow pump, the axial-flow pump belongs to the design of the flow pump. Also called a propeller pump. AF series Axial Flow Pump is also known a Propeller Pump as it allows the fluid to enter the impeller axially. The propeller is powered by a motor. The flow mechanism in a centrifugal pump can generally be Axial Flow Pumps. More videos on YouTube. com BRAND: Lawrence Pumps Low pressure Axial Flow Pump. There are guide vanes at the downstream of the impeller. read more Axial Flow & Mixed Flow Pumps. The propeller can be driven directly by a sealed motor in 7 Dec 2017 Axial flow pump and centrifugal pump working principle is different, it is mainly produced by using high-speed rotating impeller thrust carry water. Fluid flows parallel to the axis as illustrated in Figure 5. rpm . The Warman® Q-Series range Do you want heavy duty equipment capable of continuously pumping everything from corrosive and abrasive to clean and solid contaminated fluids? The AFV axial flow suspended shaft vertical pump is a single-stage, propeller type machine. It as has low head/high capacity pumping necessities, especially at the time when corrosive or abrasive solutions or slurries are concerned.
W With no priming necessary it is an easy start up and trouble-free automation of pump controls to be used. Completely redesigned 753 Axial Flow Jet. AXIAL FLOW. This pump is great for lake draining, flood control, drydock, foundation and Apr 19, 2019 · Horizontal/Vertical Chemical Axial Flow Pump Horizontal Mixed Flow Pump Vertical Slury Sump Pump; Boosting& Sanitary Hydro Pneumatic System Variable Speed Booster Pump System Grease Separation System; Submersible& Sewage Pump Submersible Sewage Pump /With Mix Fan Vortex Submersible Sewage Pump With Cutter Find here online price details of companies selling Axial Flow Pumps. Axial Flow PL, Propeller pumps offer a wide range in both hydraulic and mechanical coverage for effective and economical application of pumps to big volume pumping jobs. CP06 High-Volume Axial-Flow Pump with Screen and 30′ Motor Lead 5 HP to 15 HP. This means that the impeller is installed parallel to the pump shaft in the casing. An axial flow pump, or AFP, is a common type of pump that essentially consists of a propeller in a pipe. Keywords: Adjustable guide vanes; Axial flow pump; Hydraulic performance; Numerical simulation. Extended service life, mechanical reliability, custom designs and a wide range of materials allow the Model AF to stand out as the leader in the field. Vertical, wet pit design pump for Circulating Water Service (including condenser). Paterson Axial-Flow pumps operate with the impeller below the water level giving the advantage that no priming is necessary. Flows: AF up to 28,000 GPM, MF up to 25,000 GPM. AFPs are a reliable technology that lower the environmental footprint of surface water irrigation. Our CP04 Pumps require a 4″ discharge pipes and fittings, but a 6″ or larger discharge is highly recommended for best performance. to 120 in. Axial flow pumps have a motor-driven rotor that directs flow along a path parallel to the axis of the pump. Axial pumps, also known as propeller pumps, are used for circulating water in power plants, dewatering applications and also in chemical industries. D. Feb 15, 2021 · "Global Axial Flow Pump Market is valued approximately at USD 32. Gear Pumps and Gear Pump Systems Brehnor offers a range of Pretroland gear pumps and gear pump systems. Power the flow with H2O Works™ Axial and Mixed Flow Pumps to get high capacity at low to medium heads with outstanding efficiency. This result was primarily driven by higher rates of reoperation in the axial flow LVAD cohort. Centrifugal and Axial Flow Impeller Transformer Oil Pumps Wabtec manufactures hundreds of pump configurations used with our broad range of transformer oil coolers. In consideration of pump design theory, centrifugal pumps are capable of producing higher pressures at lower flows, whereas axial flow pumps typically generate higher flows at lower pressure rises. Please Because of its high volumetric efficiency and bi-directional rotation, a Small Axial Piston Pump can be combined with a highly-controllable AC servo motor to . The design flexibility inherent in the axial flow pumps, and TRU-FLO’s unique production techniques enable the company to build a custom product at production prices. The mixed flow impeller allows this pump to be used in a wide range of applic In our production facilities in Cressier in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland, many elbow propeller pumps for the salt industry have been manufactured in recent months. The Wamechsi Group’s Axial Flow Pumps are used for sludge-liquid pumping for a high recycle flow rate between aerobic and anoxic reactors. Centrifugal and Axial An axial flow pump is widely used in water supply process and agricultural process and is designed for the application of high flow rate and low pressure. Paterson Pumps columns are manufactured using high density polyethylene HDPE columns up to 355 mm dia. Share. (right angle to its axis). Warman ® Q-Series heavy duty Axial Flow Pumps are designed and built for continuous circulation of fluids: corrosive or abrasive, clean or solid-contaminated. 12 Nov 2020 PDF | Passage components of the pump device will have a negative flow state when axial pump run off the design condition. Boesch Pumps Inc. The Axial Flow Pump generates it's head exclusively through axial forces, and can be defined as pump impeller design with specific speeds greater than 10,000 (US Units). Fluid flows outward. With the valve 13 Dec 2013 Conventional axial-flow pump diffuser is designed with post fixed guide vanes to eliminate circulation, diffuse water and decrease flow velocity FPI is a manufacturer of High Quality Pumps including Axial Flow Propeller Pumps, Solids Handling Centrifugal Pumps, and Mobile Pumps. Contact us now. Axial flow pumps use the propelling action of the impeller vanes on the liquid to develop pressure. The propeller can be driven directly by Axial flow pumps, also known as elbow or propeller pumps, are used in high flow and low head applications. The difference is that the volute on the low-pressure versions is replaced with a casing having an axial discharge, enabling the pump to be installed in a tube or concrete. com offers 16306 axial flow pump products. : having the fluid or gas flowing parallel to the axis axial-flow turbine axial-flow pump — compare radial-flow. Axial flow propeller pumps make great water cooling pumps. Figure 6 Radial Flow Centrifugal Pump. m³/H, M. Propeller Pumps is leading Axial Flow Pump, PP Pump, Chemical Process Pump, Centrifugal Process Pump, PumpPolypropylene Process pump manufacturer in India. cteskills. They use impellers with vanes to direct flow in the same direction as the shaft - axially -- rather than radially, which Axial Flow Pump (AP). In radial flow pumps, the impell Goulds line of Axial Flow pumps is unmatched in the industry for high volume/low head pumping requirements… especially when corrosive and/or abrasive solutions are involved. For more than sixty years our axial flow pumps have been successfully applied in the salt and potash industry, chemical industry and pulp and power processes. View by: Product | Supplier. Stainless Steel High Volume 6″ Discharge Storm Water Pump $ 5,475. Learn more. The advantages of this type of construction are that the pump can be placed on a simple foundation and provides easy accessibility for inspection. The centrifugal flow pump was found to significantly increase 2-year survival free of disabling stroke or survival free of reoperation compared to the axial flow device (HR, 0. Axial flow pumps have gained increased acceptance in recent years as a bridge to heart transplantation and, more recently, as destination therapy. In an axial flow pump, the impeller pushes the liquid in a direction parallel to the pump shaft. Features. Whether your needs are flood control, field irrigation, or moving large volumes of water, rely on D&D Axial Flow Pumps for maximum performance. Axial pumps, All models utilize the parallel axial piston/slipper concept in conjunction with a tiltable swashplate to vary the pump’s displacement. We are leading vertical pump manufacturer and supplier in India. RADIAL FLOW. These heavy-duty performers are widely used for flood control, irrigation and drainage projects, large scale primary water supplies, industrial process work, power plant condensing and other circulating systems. The axial thrust from the pump was absorbed by the thrust bearing in the motor. An axial flow pump belongs to the family of flow pumps. Axial Flow Pumps are usually single stage, high specific speed impeller for high flow low head. 8 m3 /s when it is rotating at 250 rpm. 6% over the forecast period 2020-2027. Nov 17 2015, 84138190 Types of pumps. Patterson’s axial flow pumps can deliver flow capacity from 2,000 gpm to 700,000 gpm with heads to 60 ft per stage, and bowl sizes from 12 in. Get info of suppliers, manufacturers, exporters, traders of Axial Flow Pumps for buying in India. FPI serves long term Axial-flow pump is a propeller pump used for pumping a high flow rate at a smaller delivery head. They are available in both centrifugal and axial flow impeller styles and are designed to perform in extreme temperatures, with long life and low maintenance. The hub and tip diameters of the impeller are 0. It is fitted with an axial flow impeller and transports the fluid handled by making use of An axial flow pump is a type of centrifugal pump that uses an impeller with vanes that direct the flow axially. Pump type, Capacity, Head, Speed, Shaft power, Motor power, EFF. The propeller can be driven directly by a sealed motor in the pipe or by electric motor or petrol/diesel engines mounted to the pipe from the outside or by a right-angle drive shaft that pierces the pipe. Axial flow pumps, also known as elbow or propeller pumps, are used in high flow and low head applications. Axial flow pumps are centrifugal pumps in which the fluid is pumped parallel to the pump shaft. Pumps DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. One example would be the propeller pump. Definition: An axial-flow pump is a flow pump that features an axial impeller. The Fairbanks Nijhuis vertical axial flow propeller pump is designed to handle the movement of a high volume of water at a low discharge pressure. , Stepanoff, Ph. The most problematic pump was a 3,600-rpm, 2,000-gallon-per-minute, 600-foot head unit An axial-flow pump, or AFP, is a common type of pump that essentially consists of a propeller (an axial impeller) in a pipe. We use best quality materials in our products and reasonable price. The hydraulic efficiency is 85 percent, while the overall efficiency is 75 percent. Our Axial Flow Pumps make maintenance straightforward, minimising operation costs and increasing product life span, thus increasing plant availability. Other applications include raw water intake, dewatering, storm water removal, and flood control. 16306 products Alibaba. Radial flow, axial flow, and mixed flow describe the direction of the fluid's path through the pump in relation to the shaft. Axial Flow is a common type of pump that essentially consists of an impeller in a pipe operating in a casing. Diffusion vanes are located in the discharge port of the pump to eliminate the rotational velocity of the fluid imparted by the propeller. The Axial Flow Pump is the pump of choice when pumping large volumes of clear water at maximum heads of 25 feet. The stationary axial flow pump is ideal for water pumping for industrial companies and hydroelectrically plants. We have complete control of the production process: from design to engineering, molding, casting, machining, assembly and final testing. A special highlight was the production of an Egger axial flow pump in size DN 800 in titanium grade 12 (RPP 805 LB 7. 00 Gruppo Aturia is an Italian leading manufacturer of large pumps offering a wide range of axial flow pumps to Axflow UK. An axial flow pump is also called a propeller pump because the impeller works much like the propeller of a boat. 3-14 Axial flow pumps, although far more compact than centrifugal pumps, operate at much higher rotational speeds to produce the desired head Sep 22, 2018 · Mixed flow impeller – up to approx. AF_MF. Applications. The axial flow pump range is based around Hidrostal’s standard range of submersible motors. The main applications include pumps for city water, sewage pipes, river water, irrigation water, and water for electric power circulation Starting from the point of normal duty, throttling of the discharge of an axial flow pump reduces the flow but also causes a rise in pressure and power. Extended service life, mechanical reliability, custom engineering, and a wide range of materials allow the Model AF to stand out as the leader in the field. Feb 17, 2021 · Hydra-Tech - S12M - 12 Hydraulic Submersible Axial Flow High Volume Pump by Hydra-Tech Pumps. com. Why to select pump with better efficiency Definition of axial-flow. 1. Sulzer offers a complete range of low and high 25 Aug 2011 Visit us at http://www. Attributes. Sulzer offers a complete range of low and high pressure, horizontal and vertical axial flow pumps especially designed to handle severe pumping conditions. The leading edges of the second kind of guide vane locate in the further downstream of the pump axial direction than the fist kind of guide vanes. Axial-flow pumps are typically designed for heads no greater than approximately 30 Ft and are often designed to lift water just a dozen feet. Below are downloadable Axial Flow Pump Curve cut sheets showing the TDH and GPM at set RPMs. The pressure in the casing is developed by the flow of liquid over the blades of the impeller. Low pressure Axial Flow Pump. Manufacturer of standard and custom axial flow pumps for pumping stations, storm water removal, wastewater transfer and industrial wastewater. Narrow Your Search. Today, they are more often referred to as centrifugal pumps. What is the difference between Radial , Axial & Mixed Flow Pumps? Technical Engin Axial Flow Pump - AFH9000. As left Rainwater drainage pumping stations, sheep farming · For the cost of the floods and heavy rains, flood · Such as sewage treatment plant influent and effluent pumps An axial-flow pump, or AFP, is a common type of pump that essentially consists of a impeller in a pipe operating in a casing. Axial Mixed Flow Pumps. Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps | Positive displacement pump affinity laws | Pump affinity laws with example. This axial flow or low-pressure, high-volume pump is best suited for economical operation and load-carry capacity. Although axial flow pumps produce very In this paper, the axial flow pump blade is used as the initial blade, and the Your browser can't play this video. An introduction to Axial Pumps and their functioning parts. 001). *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. These pumps are ideal for low head high flow applications such as stormwater management and low lift effluent 856-786-9434 856-786-0642 info@mmc-nj. However, from the outside looking in, axial-flow pumps look a lot like turbines, so we’ve included them in this category. com knows that these types of equipment cannot be replaced over and over again and, thus, provides the best quality that has no match in the market. Whether your needs are flood control, field irrigation or moving large volumes of water, rely on D&D Axial Flow Pumps for maximum performance. Applications can be in water transfer, aquaculture and Ruhrpumpen's VAF axial flow impeller pump family comprises the VPO, PV, PMR and PVD models for high flow applications with low head, API 610 compliant Horizontal Axial Flow Pumps. The flow mechanism in a centrifugal pump can generally be described as follows: Through a suction flange the liquid flows through the suction hub into the rotating impeller due to an energy fall. Axial (propeller) flow vertical pumps are highly adaptable designs used to pump relatively large amounts of fluid at low pressures. 8 m, respectively. An axial-flow pump, or AFP, is a common type of pump that essentially consists of a propeller (an axial impeller) in a pipe. very easy pump to print, no support needed only small parts. They can be as small as a few centimetres in domestic use, or up to a metre when 29 Jun 2017 IT IS A PUMP IN WHICH A SCREW PROPELLER IS USED TO CREATE AN INCREASE IN PRESSURE BY CAUSING AN AXIAL The Axial Flow Pump generates it's head exclusively through axial forces, and can be defined as pump impeller design with specific speeds greater than 10,000 High capacity axial flow pumps and mixed flow pumps are submersible pumps that can dewater high volumes of water. MIXED FLOW. Axial flow pumps are often constructed with horizontal shaft and with suction and discharge lines or concrete inlet and outlet canals. Crop Irrigation (1). Axial Flow Pumps Warman® Q-Series Axial Flow Pumps are heavy duty pumps designed for efficient and continuous circulation of fluids containing solids. 31 to 0. This pump features a back pullout design allowing the propeller to be removed without disconnecting the pump from the system piping. The transmission temperature should not be above 50 degrees centigrade. 8, 2143, 653-1221, 1000-1600 Axial flow pumps have performance characteristics that differ drastically from other centrifugal pumps. CFX-TASCflow. Video. It is typically used for lift irrigation and drainage of agricultural TTAAW-QZ Axial Flow Pump Series, QH Mixed Flow Pump series, Drainage, Sewage, Water Supply pumps. Axial flow pumps are most commonly used in industrial applications where large flow rates are handled at lower pumping head values. Layne & Bowler low head pumps are ruggedly designed for long years of trouble-free, continuous Axial flow pumps (AFPs) are a climate-smart irrigation technology that delivers considerably more water while significantly reducing fuel energy use. 69; 2-tailed P<0. ZLB vertical axial flow pump is a high flow, low head pump. Column) Vertical axial Flow pump? steel fabricated construction with epo, Ghana, Nhava Sheva Sea, NOS, 3, 559,003, 186,334. Tradewheel. Axial Flow Pumps. Reversing the angle of the swashplate reverses the flow of oil from the pump and thus reverses the direction of rotation of the motor output. This family of pumps is specifically designed for low-head movement of water for a multitude of municipal, agricultural and industrial services. The vertical mounting allows for installations with minimal floor space, flooded suctions and minimal foundation work. “centrifugal pump”. i used a 1 meter m8 thread, for every propeller you need 4 nuts, my pump transports the water 80 Axial Flow Pumps We are the manufacturer of the Brehnor range of axial flow pumps and the proud distributor of the original Ornel ® range of axial flow pumps, manufactured by Fluid Engineering (Pty) Ltd in NSW, Australia. 1-855-AXI-FLOW (294 In axial flow centrifugal pumps the rotor is a propeller. 25 years of manufacturing experience and more than 70 years in the pump industry. Axial flow pumps are sometimes called propeller pumps because they operate essentially the same as the propeller of a boat. Axial flow pumps is unmatched for low head/high volume pumping requirements, especially when corrosive and/or abrasive solutions are involved. The pressure in the casing is [randpic] What is the difference between Centrifugal Pumps & Axial Axial flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial flow An axial flow pump is a pump in which a blade row is installed inside an axial pipe for the purpose of moving an incompressible fluid through the pipe, parallel to Axial flow pumps are common machines, used to pump water and other liquids. Recommended Media Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps: Theory, Design, and Application [A. Narrow Search. com to view the entire Axial pump video. As left An axial flow pump consists a propeller-type impeller running in the casing. Axial-flow pumps are low-head high-flow designs and aren’t true turbines. They discharge fluid nearly axially, pumping the liquid in a direction that is parallel to the pump shaft. Keywords: axial-flow pump, guide vanes, impeller, performance curves, velocity distributions,. The blades of the axial flow Axial flow pumps have gained increased acceptance in recent years as a bridge to heart transplantation and, more recently, as destination therapy. Just call us on +91-120 41-76000 An axial-flow pump, or AFP, is a common type of pump that essentially consists of a propeller (an axial impeller) in a pipe. When the fluid flows over the blades of the WHY AXIAL FLOW PUMPS. (along axis). High Volume 12 Storm Water Vertical Pump with 18″ discharge, protective strainer screen, 30′ motor lead and fittings. Special Hydraulic Motor, provides bearing lubrication. Include playlist. 1-855-AXI-FLOW (294 Produced in requirement of Fluid Mechanics course, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The S24M is designed for pumping high volumes of water at low to medium heads. Feb 11, 2021 · Hydra-Tech - S24M - 24 Hydraulic Submersible Axial Flow High Volume Pump by Hydra-Tech Pumps. 46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0. This pumps mainly consists of a motor and pulley system, support mountings, pumping channel and an Impeller that pumps the fluid directly in line of the piping works. Axial Flow Pumps are a very high flow, low head type of pump. Axial Flow Pumps are usually used for flood dewatering, power plant circulating water pump, evaporator services, and irrigation. Very heavy duty. These applications are found in a variety of markets including: urban and rural municipal water, government, industrial and irrigation and more. Features include pump housing wear rings, seal leak probes, ball bearings and stators. The Axial Flow Pump is the pump of choice when pumping large volumes of “clear” water at maximum heads of 25 feet. The 753's classic, proven design has been uniquely merged with Marine Power's new in-house machining procedures to set the standard in precision and performance. 00 – $ 7,955. (130 products available). Images ( 9) efficiency by changing the guide vane angle. Diffusion vanes are located in the discharge port of Axial flow pump. See full list on globalspec. CP04 Series Axial-Flow Pump Downloadable AutoCad File. BRAND: Lawrence Pumps. 160. com CP04 Series 3 Phase Axial-Flow Pump Specifications. Axial flow pumps tend to create less pressure than radial flow pumps, but they can produce much higher flow rates. Submersible propeller axial flowpumps, are a compact unit comprising of submersible motor and pump, capable to pump large capacities at low manometric heads. Agriculture & Irrigation (1). 23 billion in 2019 and is anticipated to grow with a growth rate of more than 3. Axial flow impeller (propeller) – approx. Description. They offer many advantages: Uses axial, mixed flow and radical flow technologies. Axial Mixed Flow Pumps We offer Peerless & Grundfos brand axial and mixed flow pumps. An error occurred while retrieving sharing information. The fluid thus travels in a relatively straight direction, from the inlet pipe through the pump to the outlet pipe. Open Channel (1). 2-6. This pump features a back pullout design allowing the propeller to be Axial flow pumps. The fluid is pumped parallel to the pump shaft. Perfectly utilizing Twin Screw Technology, Axiflow pumps can be used for BOTH Process and Cleaning In Place (CIP) with a simple speed change. Trimmed impeller, rail system, stainless steel pump housing wear ring and epoxy coated casting options also available. High-Volume 4 (CP04) Storm Water Vertical Pump prices include a protective strainer screen and 30′ motor lead. The development of the technology dates back to the 1960s in Vietnam and Thailand. Composite vertical axial pump. An axial flow pump handling water consumes 75 kW at a volumetric flow rate of 0. In this way, they differ from most other centrifugal Axial flow pumps are centrifugal pumps in which the fluid is pumped parallel to the pump shaft. Specifically designed for the nuclear industry, it features a number of hydraulic designs, and is engineered to fit customer requirements. Standard TRU-FLO construction uses A588 steel, or equal, for column and bowl assemblies to provide superior abrasion and corrosion resistance. Combined with The axial flow pump model is optimized to improve the efficiency of the pumping unit, and to broaden the range of the high efficiency zone of the axial flow pump, Axial Flow Pumps are used in applications where a self priming type pump application is very desirable. Fluid flows spirally. Axial flow pumps are most often used as compressors in turbo-jet engines. Sintech Pumps is manufacturing horizontal and vertical axial flow pumps in India. The Sulzer Ensival Moret model AH high pressure loop reactor circulation pumps are specifically designed for the circulation of polyethylene and polypropylene slurry. Axial flow pumps can be adjusted by changing the pitch of the blades on the propeller. 0ZLB/Q-75, 37756-55476, 4. The axial flow pump includes the impeller rotating inside a casing of sufficient length and that ensures uniform incoming and outgoing Our Axial Flow and Turbine Pump design have the ability to pump fluids at high volume with low horsepower needs. KW, KW, %. Total Dynamic Head: AF 0 - 40 Feet, MF 0 - 185 Feet. Speed Ranges: 514 - 1800 RPM. from 140 to 400. Introduction. A wide variety of axial flow pump options are available to you, such as power source, Pump Supply & Repair Group can supply (& install) a wide variety of Axial Flow Pumps, directly chosen to meet your requirements. 2). They use impellers with vanes to direct flow in the same direction as the shaft - axially -- rather than radially, which is 90 degrees from the shaft. 1-3 HP 3 Phase Franklin 4in Motor Information.